Information is represented and processed in neural systems in various ways. The rate coding, population coding, and temporal coding are typical examples of representation. It is a hot issue in neuroscience what kinds of coding is used in real neural systems. Different regions of the brain may resort to different coding strategies. Moreover, recent studies suggest the possibility of dual or multiple codes, in which different modes of information are embedded in one neural system. The present paper reviews various possibilities of neural codes focusing on dual codes.
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