The Kenyah Dayak people began to migrate from the isolated area to the Mahakam basin in the early 1950's. As the Kenyah people migrate downstream, infiltration of monetary economy into the village increases, which leads to changes of life style, social structure such as work organization and mutual aid system in daily life, and so on. In the course of a series of such changes, sustainable swidden agriculture system is also changed to a less sustainable one. The Benuaq Dayak people, however, practice sustainable 'swidden (paddy) - rattan forestry' system while they can earn much income. The Buginese way of land utilization, 'swidden (paddy) - pepper production' system, is the least sustainable though the pepper production is the most profitable in the region. The land utilization by the transmigrated Javanese is not so sustainable at present, but there is a possibility of its getting more sustainable because of acquisition of the land ownership.
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