Background: The independent and combined associations of muscle strength and obesity on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men remain unclear. Methods: Hand grip strength was cross-sectionally evaluated between 2011 and 2013 to assess muscle strength in 5039 male workers aged 40 to 64 years. Weight and height were measured, and overweight/obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes, defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL and/or hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5% and/or self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, was evaluated. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the prevalence of type 2 diabetes were obtained using a logistic regression model. Results: In total, 611 participants had type 2 diabetes, and 1763 participants were overweight/obese. After adjustment for covariates, we found an inverse association between muscle strength and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (P for trend <0.01). In addition, when the analyses were stratified by obesity status, the multivariableadjusted OR per 2-standard-deviation increase in muscle strength was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.49-0.83) in the overweight/ obese group, compared to a weaker relationship in the normal-weight group (OR 0.79 per 2-standard-deviation increase; 95% CI, 0.60-1.06). Conclusions: Dynapenia, an age-related decrease in muscle strength, is associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and this relationship is stronger in overweight/obese middle-aged Japanese men than in normalweight men.
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