This chapter outlines the local circumstances of Japanese language schools (JLSs) in California and in Seattle and Tacoma in the state of Washington in the 1920s. Legal pressure on the JLSs in California began to increase in the 1920s. The frequent use of animals and insects as in Aesop’s Fables served the double purpose of using political neutrality to promote the universal morality that was expected of Nikkei citizens. The editor of the California version of the Japanese Reader made a point, nonetheless, of mentioning the considerable contribution made by Japanese immigrants to California, thereby cultivating self-esteem among Nikkei citizens. In 1913, when the Second Annual Conference of Japanese Teachers of America was held in San Francisco, the compilation of local textbooks was one of the main items on the agenda. Some teachers may have emphasised the importance of Kyoiku chokugo, while others stressed allegiance to the United States of America.
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