The crystallographic features of Bi1−xCaxFeO3 samples with x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.30 compositions are investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Perovskite-based modulated structures are found in all the samples except for the x = 0.10 sample where a rhombohedral R3c BiFeO3-type structure is observed at room temperature. The in situ heating experiment indicates that the modulated structure appears even in the x = 0.10 sample at 673 K or higher. At room temperature, the modulation direction is found to change at approximately x = 0.20. The models of the modulated structures are constructed by introducing periodic antiphase boundaries in terms of the M3-type rotational displacements of the FeO6 octahedra. The electron diffraction patterns simulated from the models are in good agreement with the experimental results. The composition dependence of the modulated structures is also discussed.
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