Dietary protein intake is important for skeletal muscle protein synthesis. In this study, we investigated the differential effect of protein sources on hypertrophy of plantaris muscle induced by surgical ablation of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Six-week old mice were fed diets containing caseinate, whey, or soy as protein sources for 2 weeks. Plantaris muscle hypertrophy was induced by a unilateral ablation of synergistic muscles after a week. Food intake of soy protein-fed mice was higher than that of caseinate and whey-fed mice, resulting in higher body and fat weights. Plantaris muscle weight in sham-operated mice was not different across the groups. Overload-operated plantaris muscle weight and increased ratio of overloaded muscle to sham-operated muscle weights were higher in caseinate-fed mice than in whey- and soy protein-fed mice, suggesting caseinate as a promising protein source for muscle hypertrophy.
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