Effects of Pb and Sn additives on electrodeposition of Zn were investigated for the applications in Zn secondary battery, focused on their roles on morphological evolution. Similarly to well-known effect of Pb addition to smoothly electrodeposit Zn film surface, Sn also exhibited to suppress the formation of mossy structures, which were highly filamentous Zn electrodeposits to cause frequently battery failure. Pb significantly shifted deposition potential of Zn to negative value at concentration less than 1.0 mmol dm−3, while Sn showed no substantial effect even at 50 mmol dm−3. The morphological evolution analysis demonstrated that the addition of 1.0 mmol dm−3 Pb significantly altered nucleation behavior of Zn at initial stages of deposition; stacking of layer-like structures (microsteps) were altered to discrete and uniform nuclei of Zn preferentially oriented to (002) direction. In contrast, with Sn additive, morphological features at the initial stage of deposition were similar to that without additive. However, microsteps evolution was gradually suppressed and relatively strong (002) texture of electrodeposited Zn was mitigated by Sn addition. These results suggested that the beneficial roles of Pb and Sn addition on Zn morphological evolution were ascribed to different reasons; Pb diminished the active growth sites of Zn surface by suppressing the deposition reaction of Zn, while Sn suppressed microsteps evolution by different texture evolution of Zn.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)