Effects of new types of reinforcement, alien type and alien combined with external type (double reinforcement), were examined in comparison with a conventional external one. One hundred and twenty children, 6th grade boys and girls, worked on learning discrimination tasks. Under alien reinforcement, upon correct responses of the child the experimenter received reinforcers from him‐(or her‐) self thus reinforcing the child responses. Under each condition, alien, external or double, children learned the tasks and their learning efficacy increased. Personality characteristics of children, in terms of extraversion and emotionality, differentiated effects of three reinforcement conditions on learning behavior and efficacy. The effect of alien reinforcement was influenced by the personality factors most, and that of double reinforcement least. In addition, personality factors influenced differently between alien and external conditions. Learning occurred differently under three different conditions of reinforcement, depending on the personality type of learners. Underlying mechanisms of alien reinforcement were different from, and its functions were independent of, those of external reinforcement. None of the effects of alien reinforcement on learning and motivation were contaminated by the intellectual faculties of learners.
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