The effects of Chios mastic gum (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia) and exercise on physical characteristics, blood lipid markers, insulin resistance, and hepatic function were investigated in healthy, non-smoking Japanese men aged ≥ 40 years. Participants were allocated to control (C, 5 g/day placebo powder, n = 7), mastic (M, 5 g/day mastic powder, n = 7), or mastic plus physical activity groups (M + PA, 5 g/day mastic powder and 30-min exercise three times/week, n = 7), and measurements were taken at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Serum triglycerides were significantly reduced at 3 months in M and M + PA compared with C (P < 0.05). Serum insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance values were significantly reduced at 3 and 6 months in M + PA, and at 6 months in M, compared with C (P < 0.05). These results indicate that Chios mastic gum intake for 6 months reduced serum triglyceride and insulin concentrations, and additional exercise enhanced the effect on insulin.
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