Background Postprandial regulation of central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) is impaired by obesity-related disorders. The present study aimed to examine the effect of hypocaloric diet intervention on cSBP when performing oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in overweight/obese men and explore its mechanism. Methods Fifteen overweight/obese men (mean ± SD; age, 52 ± 10 years; BMI, 29.1 ± 2.3 kg/m2) completed a 12-week dietary modification program (group lectures and individual counseling conducted 8 times in 12 weeks, 1680 kcal/day). Before and after the program, body mass, daily intakes of total energy and major macronutrients, serum lipid profiles, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured, and plasma glucose, serum insulin, and cSBP (i.e., radial second systolic pressure) were assessed when fasting and at 60 min and 120 min after 75 g oral glucose loading. Results The 12-week program led to successful weight loss (−10.1 kg or −12.1%) with significant reductions in the daily intakes of total energy and major macronutrients. Consequently, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HOMA-IR (2.1 ± 1.3 to 0.8 ± 0.3, p < 0.01), and glucose and insulin during OGTT were substantially decreased after 12 weeks. The diet program had also resulted in significantly reduced 2-h averaged cSBP during OGTT (111 ± 11 to 103 ± 10 mmHg, p < 0.01). There was a significant correlation between the changes from baseline in both HOMA-IR and 2-h averaged cSBP (rs = 0.69, p < 0.01). Conclusions The current results suggest that the dietary modification–induced improvement in insulin resistance has contributed to a significant reduction in cSBP during OGTT in overweight/obese men.
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