In this study, we analyze energy consumption of FC-EDLC hybrid railway vehicle to reveal the energy reduction effect. To evaluate this effect properly, we adopt dynamic programming which is optimal control theory. Dynamic programming enables us to calculate energy consumption under optimized control of power sources. In this paper, we evaluate the relationship among reduction effect of energy consumption, device capacity, and line profiles. Finally, we reveal the energy consumption characteristics and the applicability of hybrid-power-source railway vehicle.