Cambodia is located almost at the center of the Mekong Delta. The largest lake in Southeast Asia, named the Tonle Sap, is located at the center of Cambodia. The Khmer dynasty had flourished in Cambodia, and economic growth has continued following the end of the civil war. There are four main types of housing in Cambodia. They include "town houses" (which are often called "shop houses"), "detached houses," "traditional houses," and "condominiums." In this chapter, the energy consumption of these four types of houses is reported by use and by household income. The results are from several interview surveys that were conducted in Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Kandal, and Takeo. The energy consumption of Cambodian houses shows a strong correlation with household income, location, and the style of the house. The average annual energy consumption in urban areas was 13.3 GJ per household. In rural areas, the average annual energy consumption was 22.3 GJ per household. Low-income families depended highly on biomass energy and used more than high-income households because the combustion efficiency of biomass is low. As a result, the energy consumption in rural areas was larger than that in urban areas. When the income of household exceeded approximately $300 per year, the shift from using biomass energy to LPG and electricity progressed rapidly. Corresponding to this shift in energy source, energy efficiency improved, and energy consumption decreased. Ultimately, as household income increased even more, energy consumption also increased.
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