In this study, we examine the effect of a remedial education program in language arts and mathematics for third- and fourth-grade students with low previous academic performance. Utilizing a unique panel data set constructed from the administrative data of public elementary schools in Adachi ward in Japan, we estimate the impact of remedial program participation on the subsequent test scores in Japanese language arts and mathematics. This paper utilizes the variations in placement policies of schools as an instrument to identify the effect of the remedial education program, controlling for selection biases. Our estimation results indicate that the remedial education programs had positive effects on test scores of Japanese language arts by 0.13 of a standard deviation, while no statistically significant effect was found for mathematics test scores. The results suggest that the participants increased awareness of the importance of study practices and hours of study as well.
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