Electric vehicles (EVs) and vehicle-to-home (V2H) technologies are expected to be used as domestic electricity storage systems, thereby promoting the self-consumption of photovoltaic (PV) power. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the profitability of V2H installation, the optimal facility configuration and the energy performance of V2H, while considering a diversity of household types and storage facility options. We optimized the facilities and operation strategy of a residential energy system under many scenarios with different electricity demand profiles, automobile usage patterns and available areas for PV installation. The results showed that a V2H system should generally be installed instead of a stationary battery (SB), but combining a V2H system with a SB is more economical for households with long EV absence times. Additionally, V2H is profitable for households with short EV absence times, large available areas for PV installation and high electricity demand. Furthermore, V2H exhibits superior energy independence and energy-saving effects for households whose annual PV generation exceeds the yearly household electricity demand.
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