Background: Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) are a series of mouse strains originally derived from unexpected crosses between AKR/J and unknown mice, from which phenotypically distinct senescence-prone (SAMP) and -resistant (SAMR) inbred strains were subsequently established. Although SAMP strains have been widely used for aging research focusing on their short life spans and various age-related phenotypes, such as immune dysfunction, osteoporosis, and brain atrophy, the responsible gene mutations have not yet been fully elucidated.Results: To identify mutations specific to SAMP strains, we performed whole exome sequencing of 6 SAMP and 3 SAMR strains. This analysis revealed 32,019 to 38,925 single-nucleotide variants in the coding region of each SAM strain. We detected Ogg1 p.R304W and Mbd4 p.D129N deleterious mutations in all 6 of the SAMP strains but not in the SAMR or AKR/J strains. Moreover, we extracted 31 SAMP-specific novel deleterious mutations. In all SAMP strains except SAMP8, we detected a p.R473W missense mutation in the Ldb3 gene, which has been associated with myofibrillar myopathy. In 3 SAMP strains (SAMP3, SAMP10, and SAMP11), we identified a p.R167C missense mutation in the Prx gene, in which mutations causing hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (Dejerine-Sottas syndrome) have been identified. In SAMP6 we detected a p.S540fs frame-shift mutation in the Il4ra gene, a mutation potentially causative of ulcerative colitis and osteoporosis.Conclusions: Our data indicate that different combinations of mutations in disease-causing genes may be responsible for the various phenotypes of SAMP strains.
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