The present study was performed to examine how intention to learn and explicit knowledge in sequence learning are reflected in event-related potentials. Participants responded to numerals presented in a repeating order, which were replaced infrequently by deviant numerals. The participants were given incidental or intentional learning instructions. Sequence parts for which they acquired explicit knowledge were identified for each participant by post-task memory tests. Reaction times indicated that sequence learning occurred under both types of instruction. The N2 enhancement for deviants was primarily associated with explicit sequence knowledge, and the P3 enhancement showed a weak association. These results suggested that N2 and P3 reflect different aspects of explicit learning.
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