Despite the foreign language community's historical interest in employing technology to support language learning, few research studies have linked its use to instructional outcomes and most have failed to address whether technology enhancements lead to increased proficiency gains. This article examines the relationship between technology use and student performance in a Spanish language program at a research university. Through classroom observation and student and instructor self-reports, coupled with proficiency data from first- and second-year courses, this project investigated the type and distribution of technology use, instructors’ and students’ perceptions of the value of technology use, and the relationship between observed and perceived technology use and the exit proficiency ratings of student participants. The study found that students and instructors used technology to varying degrees and valued different types of technology use in language learning but viewed face-to-face communication as most essential. In addition, regardless of very different technology implementations among instructors and courses, students’ proficiency ratings reached the expected exit level for each course and were remarkably consistent among individuals.
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