The current study was conducted to examine the relationship among leisure engagement, affective (i.e. attraction, centrality, resistance to change) and cognitive (i.e. equipment, knowledge) leisure involvement, leisure satisfaction, and subjective happiness. From a sample of 493 American scuba divers, we found that (1) the oft-supported leisure engagement-happiness relationship was rejected, and (2) subjective happiness was directly or indirectly associated with affective and cognitive leisure involvement factors. Specifically, leisure engagement did not show any significant relationship with subjective happiness. Rather, subjective happiness was associated with several affective and cognitive leisure involvement factors. Attraction was associated with subjective happiness through leisure satisfaction, while the relationship between subjective happiness and centrality was negative. Equipment was positively and indirectly associated with subjective happiness whereas knowledge was directly linked to subjective happiness. These demonstrated that affective and cognitive involvement rather than leisure engagement are strongly associated with subjective happiness. Detailed theoretical interpretation and useful information for policy makers who develop leisure programmes aimed at enhancing public happiness will be provided.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Social Psychology
- Cultural Studies
- Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management