Homotopy classes of nanowords and nanophrases are combinatorial generalizations of virtual knots and links. Goussarov, Polyak and Viro defined finite type invariants for virtual knots and links via semi-virtual crossings. We extend their definition to nanowords and nanophrases. We study finite type invariants of low degrees. In particular, we show that the linking matrix and T invariant defined by Fukunaga are finite type of degree 1 and degree 2 respectively. We also give a finite type invariant of degree 4 for open homotopy of Gauss words.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geometry and Topology