This study examines the relationship among personality traits, day-to-day resilience, and athletes’ resilience among Japanese athletes. Participants, comprising 165 Japanese athletes (male = 57, female = 108, mean age = 19.4 years, SD = 1.2), were asked to complete a questionnaire. The results of structural equation modeling indicated that the personality traits of “Extroversion,” “Agreeableness,” “Conscientiousness,” and “Openness” were significantly associated with athletes’ resilience and related concepts such as “Athletic Mental Toughness,” “Athletic Self-understanding,” and “Athletic Physical Toughness,” which develop through innate resilience. Their personality traits were also significantly associated with concepts such as “Athletic Motivation and Challenge” and “Athletic Self-understanding,” which develop through acquired resilience. In addition, “Neuroticism” showed a significant negative association with athletes’ resilience developed through innate resilience. The findings of our study support our hypothesis that the personality traits of athletes, owing to their resilience, may vary based on whether they are involved in day-to-day life situations or in competitive situations.
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