Background: Transcription factor-dependent cellular reprogramming is integral to normal development and is central to production of induced pluripotent stem cells. This process typically requires pioneer transcription factors (TFs) to induce de novo formation of enhancers at previously closed chromatin. Mechanistic information on this process is currently sparse. Results: Here we explore the mechanistic basis by which GATA3 functions as a pioneer TF in a cellular reprogramming event relevant to breast cancer, the mesenchymal to epithelial transition (MET). In some instances, GATA3 binds previously inaccessible chromatin, characterized by stable, positioned nucleosomes where it induces nucleosome eviction, alters local histone modifications, and remodels local chromatin architecture. At other loci, GATA3 binding induces nucleosome sliding without concomitant generation of accessible chromatin. Deletion of the transactivation domain retains the chromatin binding ability of GATA3 but cripples chromatin reprogramming ability, resulting in failure to induce MET. Conclusions: These data provide mechanistic insights into GATA3-mediated chromatin reprogramming during MET, and suggest unexpected complexity to TF pioneering. Successful reprogramming requires stable binding to a nucleosomal site; activation domain-dependent recruitment of co-factors including BRG1, the ATPase subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; and appropriate genomic context. The resulting model provides a new conceptual framework for de novo enhancer establishment by a pioneer TF.
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