The crystal structure of tin (Sn)-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) film was investigated by using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurement and first principle calculations. XAFS measurements suggest that Sn doping can enhance the growth of rutile TiO2 phase, where Sn ions are considered to substitute into Ti sites with a valence of 4+. First principles calculation reveals that Sn doping can reduce obviously the formation energy of the rutile phase. By comparing the measured and calculated XAFS spectra, we found that the geometric structure of Sn dopant can be understood as the alignment of SnO6 tetrahedrons through a corner oxygen in the Sn-doped TiO2 film, that is, the Sn ions substituted in the Ti sites and made a one-dimensional zigzag '-Sn-O-Sn-' chain.
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