Background: Carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation during exercise attenuates exercise-induced increases in plasma Interleukin (IL)-6 concentration. However, the effects of CHO supplementation on muscle IL-6 production during endurance exercise is controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of CHO supplementation on muscle IL-6 production during endurance exercise with a special focus on the IL-6 producing cells. Methods: C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups—sedentary with water ingestion group as the control (Con; n = 10), exercise with water ingestion group (Ex; n = 10), and exercise with 6% glucose ingestion group (Ex + glucose; n = 10). The Ex and Ex + glucose groups completed 3 h of treadmill running (24 m/min, 7% incline) and were sacrificed immediately after exercise. Results: The exercise-induced increases of plasma IL-6 concentration and gastrocnemius IL-6 gene expression were attenuated by glucose ingestion. However, the increases of soleus IL-6 gene expression and gastrocnemius and soleus IL-6 protein expression were not attenuated by glucose ingestion. Furthermore, we observed that macrophages that infiltrated muscle produce IL-6 and glucose ingestion attenuated the infiltration of IL-6-producing macrophages. Conclusion: This study revealed that infiltrating macrophages may be one type of IL-6-producing cells during endurance exercise, and the infiltration of these cells in muscle was attenuated by glucose ingestion. However, the effects of glucose ingestion on muscle IL-6 production were limited.
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