In 2000, Tsutsui and colleagues discovered a neuropeptide gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) that inhibits gonadotropin release in birds. Subsequently, extensive studies during the last 15 years have demonstrated that GnIH is a key neurohormone that regulates reproduction in vertebrates, acting in the brain and on the pituitary to modulate reproduction and reproductive behavior. On the other hand, deprivation of food and other metabolic challenges inhibit the reproductive axis as well as sexual motivation. Interestingly, recent studies have further indicated that GnIH controls feeding behavior in vertebrates, such as in birds and mammals. This review summarizes the discovery of GnIH and its conservation in vertebrates and the neuroendocrine control of feeding behavior and reproductive behavior by GnIH.
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