Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are ubiquitous signaling molecules involved in diverse physiological processes, including stomatal closure. Photosynthetic electron transport (PET) is the main source of ROS generation in plants, but whether it functions in guard cell signaling remains unclear. Here, we assessed whether PET functions in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in guard cells. ABA-elicited ROS were localized to guard cell chloroplasts in Arabidopsis thaliana, Commelina benghalensis, and Vicia faba in the light and abolished by the PET inhibitors 3-(3, 4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea and 2, 5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone. These inhibitors reduced ABA-induced stomatal closure in all three species, as well as in the NADPH oxidase-lacking mutant atrboh D/F. However, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor did not fully eliminate ABA-induced ROS in the chloroplasts, and ABA-induced ROS were still observed in the guard cell chloroplasts of atrboh D/F. This study demonstrates that ROS generated through PET act as signaling molecules in ABA-induced stomatal closure and that this occurs in concert with ROS derived through NADPH oxidase.
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