Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify the habitual dietary intake and stress fractures history among sport types and to determine the factors related to the risk of stress fractures among Japanese female collegiate athletes. Methods: This study involved 589 Japanese female collegiate athletes. We investigated habitual dietary intake (food frequency questionnaire), eating attitude (EAT-26), demographics, training status, participation in sports events, history of injury in their career, and menstrual status using a self-reported questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors associated with stress fractures. Results: Thirty percent of the total participants had a history of stress fractures, although most participants had no risk of eating disorders. Most Japanese female collegiate athletes consumed less than the dietary reference intake levels for the general Japanese female population aged 18–29 years and the athletes’ dietary guideline for key bone-health nutrients such as calcium and vitamin D. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed body mass index (BMI; OR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.82–0.99) and energy intake (EI; OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.99–0.99) as significant and independent factors in the history of stress fractures among Japanese female collegiate athletes (p = 0.047 and p = 0.039, respectively). Conclusions: Japanese female collegiate athletes failed to meet energy and nutrient recommendations; BMI and EI were significantly associated with stress fractures, a diet that includes an appropriate amount of energy is essential.
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