Recently, biomaterials have been widely used in a variety of medical applications. We previously reported that a poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA) nanosheet shows anti-adhesive properties and constitutes a useful biomaterial for preventing unwanted wound adhesion in surgical operations. In this article, we examine whether the PLLA nanosheet can be specifically modified with biomacromolecules on one surface only. Such an approach would endow each side of the nanosheet with discrete functions, that is anti-adhesive and pro-healing properties. We fabricated two distinct PLLA nanosheets: (i) collagen cast on the surface of a PLLA nanosheet (Col-Cast-PLLA) and (ii) collagen spin-coated on the nanosheet (Col-Spin-PLLA). In the Col-Spin-PLLA nanosheet, the collagen layer had a thickness of 5-10 nm on the PLLA surface and displayed increased hydrophilicity compared to both PLLA and Col-Cast-PLLA nanosheets. In addition, atomic force microscopy showed disorganized collagen fibril formation on the PLLA layer when covered using the spin-coating method, while apparent bundle formations of collagen were formed in the Col-Cast-PLLA nanosheet. The Col-Spin-PLLA nanosheet provided a microenvironment for cells to adhere and spread. By contrast, the Col-Cast-PLLA nanosheet displayed reduced cell adhesion compared to the Col-Spin-PLLA nanosheet. Consistent with these findings, immunocytochemical analysis clearly showed fine networks of actin filaments in cells cultured on the Col-Spin-PLLA, but not the Col-Cast-PLLA nanosheet. Therefore, the Col-Spin-PLLA nanosheet was shown to be more suitable for acting as a scaffold. In conclusion, we have succeeded in developing a heterofunctional nanosheet comprising a collagen modified side, which has the ability to rapidly adhere cells, and an unmodified side, which acts as an adhesion barrier, by using a spin-coating technique.
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