A hierarchical computing scheme is developed by carefully considering mismatches arising from the system decomposition. The method makes use of an extension of a fast second-order load-flow method that allows a fixed Jacobian matrix to be used in the hierarchical algorithm. In the problem formulation the power network is decomposed into two or more subsystems; the interaction among them is taken into account through the tie-line bus voltages. The hierarchical structure of the method consists of two levels: the upper level, where the optimal tie-line bus voltages are evaluated; and the lower level, where the optimal states of each subsystem are determined by minimizing a cost function that involves the entire system. Three test cases using the method are reported here; the test results are compared with those obtained by another hierarchical power system state estimation method.
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