Challenging new business for seeking better performance is an essential matter for company to keep sustainable growth. The wisdom of learning from failure is incontrovertible. Yet organizations that do it well are extraordinarily rare. This paper reports a successful case study in Company S in Japan. They succeeded in establishing the way to learn from failure. Through their system, they have accumulated 41 failure case studies and lessons learned since 2005, and they could eventually earn six fold profits more than before. This case study generates several research topics (research questions) as for "How can company improve financial performance by learning failure?" However this paper shows just research questions. The validation of these research topics should be carefully examined beyond this paper.