Human resource management (HRM) refers to “the policies, practices, and systems that influence employees’ behavior, attitudes and performance” (Noe et al., 2013: 5). It encompasses a number of organizational activities that involve the management of people, organizations, and work. Specific activities include work design, recruitment and selection, training, compensation, performance management, and labor relations. Because of the breadth of its scope, HRM overlaps with other disciplines such as organizational behavior (e.g., the effect of HRM on employee attitudes and behaviors), strategic management (e.g., the effect of HRM on organizational performance), economics (e.g., the effect of financial incentives on employee behavior), and sociology (e.g., the diffusion of HRM practices). Irrespective of the approach taken, the development of research advances our understanding about the nature, antecedents, and consequences of HRM (Wilkinson et al., 2010).
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