The pleiotropic behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has gained global attention due to their immense potential for immunosuppression and their therapeutic role in immune disorders. MSCs migrate towards inflamed microenvironments, produce anti-inflammatory cytokines and conceal themselves from the innate immune system. These signatures are the reason for the uprising in the sciences of cellular therapy in the last decades. Irrespective of their therapeutic role in immune disorders, some factors limit beneficial effects such as inconsistency of cell characteristics, erratic protocols, deviating dosages, and diverse transfusion patterns. Conclusive protocols for cell culture, differentiation, expansion, and cryopreservation of MSCs are of the utmost importance for a better understanding of MSCs in therapeutic applications. In this review, we address the immunomodulatory properties and immunosuppressive actions of MSCs. Also, we sum up the results of the enhancement, utilization, and therapeutic responses of MSCs in treating inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders and diabetes.
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