Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Life Style Modification Program for Physical Activity and Diet (LiSM-PAN) in comparison to a conventional healthcare program. Method: Subjects with risk factor(s) for chronic disease were allocated as a cluster to the LiSM group (n = 92) or the Control group (n = 85). The LiSM-PAN program consisted of counseling plus social and environment support, and the Control program consisted of written feedback for changing physical activity and dietary practice. Intervention was conducted for 6 months during 2001-2002 and with data analysis during 2003-2004 in Tokyo, Japan. The main outcomes were leisure time exercise energy expenditure (L.E.E.E.), maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), dietary habits, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid parameters. Results: The LiSM group showed a significantly greater increase in L.E.E.E. than the Control group at the end of the intervention (mean inter-group difference: 400.6 kcal/week, 95% CI: 126.1, 675.0 kcal/week). No significant mean inter-group differences were observed in dietary habits. The LiSM group showed significantly greater decreases in BMI, systolic blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol than the Control group. Conclusion: The LiSM-PAN program produced greater positive changes in L.E.E.E., dietary habits, and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in high-risk middle-aged male workers compared to the Control program.
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