Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using an equivalent circuit is a powerful tool in the diagnosis of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, LIBs have been increasingly used in applications requiring power higher than that used for conventional LIBs for portable electric devices. Considering this demand for LIBs, the ionic resistances in the electrodes, which raise a reaction distribution under high-power operation, are important. This consequently means EIS analysis should include ionic resistances in the electrodes in equivalent circuits. Additionally, the impedance response of LIBs are too complicated to be analyzed in detail because the impedance response consists of overlapping elemental processes such as chemical reactions and ion migration. This paper therefore presents an analysis of impedance responses, which are independently obtained by a micro reference electrode, by using a transmission line model (TLM) that possesses the ability to count the ionic resistances in the electrodes. Similar to the conventional Randles equivalent circuit, the equivalent circuit with TLM could fit the impedance responses simulated by the equivalent circuit with measured responses. This paper discusses the potential of EIS using an equivalent circuit coupled with a TLM for diagnosis of LIBs in power applications.
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