On cross-modal interactions, top-down controls such as attention and explicit identification of cross-modal inputs were assumed to play crucial roles for the optimization. Here we show the establishment of cross-modal associations without such top-down controls. The onsets of two circles producing apparent motion perception were accompanied by indiscriminable sounds consisting of six identical and one unique sound frequencies. After adaptation to the visual apparent motion with the sounds, the sounds acquired a driving effect for illusory visual apparent motion perception. Moreover, the pure tones with each unique frequency of the sounds acquired the same effect after the adaptation, indicating that the difference in the indiscriminable sounds was implicitly coded. We further confrimed that the aftereffect didnot transfer between eyes. These results suggest that the brain establishes new neural representations between sound frequency and visual motion without clear identification of the specific relationship between cross-modal stimuli in early perceptual processing stages.
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