Malignancy in cystosarcoma phyllodes is uncommon and often confined to the stromal element. An extremely rare case of infiltrating ductal carcinoma developing within the stroma of cystosarcoma phyllodes is reported herein. A breast tumor with a diameter of 15 cm, which was diagnosed as cystosarcoma phyllodes, was excised from the right breast of a 47-year old woman. The histopathological examination revealed that hyperplastic ductal epithelial cells with dark cytoplasm and enlarged hyperchromatic nuclei were infiltrating the stroma. Thus, a diagnosis of ductal carcinoma within cystosarcoma was made. Subsequently, a standard radical mastectomy was performed. No recurrence or metastasis has been observed over the post-operative period of 5 years and 6 months.
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