We have investigated electronic structure evolution by cation substitution in Ba3-xSrxNb5O15 by means of hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. Localization of Nb 4d electrons manifests as spectral weight transfer from a coherent component at the Fermi level to an incoherent one at 1-2 eV below it. This behavior is similar to that of electron-doped SrTiO3. On the other hand, Nb 3d and 4p core level spectra exhibit a screening effect with an energy scale of 1-2 eV by the coherent Nb 4d electrons similar to 4d electron systems near Mott transitions. The energy scale indicates that electron correlation is involved in the metal to insulator transition in the present system, although the Nb 4d band is about 1/10 filled. The present results suggest a mechanism of electron localization due to atomic disorder and electron correlation.
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