Education for sustainable development (ESD) and global citizenship education (GCEd) have drawn ample attention, particularly following the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals. This study aims to investigate the individual and institutional-level factors associated with the desired learning outcomes in these areas. The systematic review included 14 studies that documented statistically significant positive outcomes related to ESD and GCEd. The results highlight several factors that may enhance the effectiveness of teaching and learning in these areas. It revealed the need for future studies to address variables related to learners’ characteristics and organizational/school contexts in the implementation of the curriculum.
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