Lysosome is the principal organelle for the ultimate degradation of cellular macromolecules, which are delivered through endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy. The lysosomal functions have been found to be impaired by fatty foods and aging, and more importantly, the lysosomal dysfunction in macrophages has been reported as a risk of atherosclerosis development. In this study, we searched for dietary polyphenols which possess the activity for enhancing the lysosomal degradation in J774.1, a murine macrophage-like cell line. Screening test utilizing DQ-BSA digestion identified isorhamnetin (3ʹ-O-methylquercetin) as an active compound. Interestingly, structural comparison to inactive flavonols revealed that the chemical structure of the B-ring moiety in isorhamnetin is the primary determinant of its lysosome-enhancing activity. Unexpectedly isorhamnetin failed to inhibit mTORC1-TFEB signaling, a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis and function. Our data suggested that the other molecular mechanism might be critical for the regulation of lysosomes in macrophages. Abbreviations: ANOVA: analysis of variance; ApoE: apolipoprotein E; ATP6V0D2: ATPase H+ transporting V0 subunit d2; BAF: bafilomycin A1; BODIPY: boron dipyrromethene; BSA: bovine serum albumin; CTSD: cathepsin D; CTSF: cathepsin F; DMEM: Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium; DMSO: dimethyl sulfoxide; EGCG: epigallocatechin-3-gallate; FBS: fetal bovine serum; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; HPLC: high-performance liquid chromatography; LAMP1: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; LAMP2A: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2A; LC-MS/MS: liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; MITF: microphthalmia-associated transcription factor; MRM: multiple reaction monitoring; mTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PPARγ: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ; RT-qPCR: reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction; SDS: sodium dodecyl sulfate; SNARE: soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive-factor attachment protein receptor; TBS: Tris-buffered saline; TFA: trifluoroacetic acid; TFE3: transcription factor binding to IGHM enhancer 3; TFEB: transcriptional factor EB; TFEC: transcription factor EC; V-ATPase: vacuolar-type proton ATPase.
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