The position of women in Japanese society has been shifting with changing international relations. As an island country, the opportunity of international exchange for the Japanese was extremely limited by the technology of sailing vessels prior to the steam engine. Peaceful cross-border activities were accomplished by a few correspondents (old diplomats), Buddhists, and adventurers. Turning points are witnessed in 1854 (the end of isolationist policy), 1868 (Meiji restoration), and 1945 (the conclusion of WWII).
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