The issue we address is whether an animal knows or understands the significance of learning. We constructed an animal's own conceptualization via resolving a paradox underlying the process of learning. We found a kind of self-similar pattern in the behavior of goldfish resolving a paradoxical experimental problem. The pattern can be considered as a solution to the paradox in the experiment. An animal's own learning should be revised through solving paradoxes. The dualism of mechanistic thinking and vitalism can thus be avoided. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistics and Probability
- Modelling and Simulation
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Applied Mathematics