This keynote paper presents the damage of structures and infrastructures in the Tohoku Region during the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami of March 11, 2011. Field investigations after this earthquake proved the effectiveness of upgrades of seismic specifications and seismic retrofit. Meanwhile, some of existing bridges without seismic retrofit were severely damaged due to strong ground motions. In addition, many superstructures were completely washed away by the tsunami, and several substructures were overturned due to scour. Some of reinforced concrete components and steel bearings were severely deteriorated due to chloride-induced corrosion. Life-cycle reliability of bridges in Japan has to be estimated taking into consideration the seismic hazard, tsunami hazard, and hazard associated with airborne chlorides. Lessons from the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake with emphasis on life-cycle structural performance is the topic of this keynote paper.