Alcaligenes are opportunistic commensal bacteria that reside in gut-associated lymphoid tissues such as Peyer's patches (PPs); however, how they create and maintain their homeostatic environment, without inducing an excessive inflammatory response remained unclear. We show here that Alcaligenes-derived lipopolysaccharide (Alcaligenes LPS) acts as a weak agonist of toll-like receptor 4 and promotes IL-6 production from dendritic cells, which consequently enhances IgA production. The inflammatory activity of Alcaligenes LPS was weaker than that of Escherichia coli-derived LPS and therefore no excessive inflammation was induced by Alcaligenes LPS in vitro or in vivo. Alcaligenes LPS also showed adjuvanticity, inducing antigen-specific immune responses without excessive inflammation. These findings reveal the presence of commensal bacteria-mediated homeostatic inflammatory conditions within PPs that produce optimal IgA induction without causing pathogenic inflammation and suggest that Alcaligenes LPS could be a safe and potent adjuvant.
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