We conducted sensitivity analysis of sika deer (Cervus nippon) based on demographic parameters obtained from a variety of previously studied populations and applied a life-stage matrix model. Sensitivity analysis by a stochastic model revealed that adult female survival was the most effective in the population growth rate; this was also supported by an analytical model. Survival of young and fecundity of adults had an impact on the growth rate in a rapidly increasing population. Based on the life history characteristics of sika deer, long-term warm winters were the major factor causing recent increases of population sizes and range expansion, which was accompanied by enlargement of habitat due to drastic changes in human society. Female hunting was effective for controlling these populations, but careful management in the newly proposed scheme is required.
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