Enrichment of anammox bacteria from three types of seed sludge, sewage, digester, and nitrification sludges, was conducted using a nonwoven fabric carrier for immobilizing the anammox bacteria, and the microbial diversity of the enriched anammox culture was investigated. About four months later, simultaneous removals of ammonium and nitrite, and production of a small amount of nitrate, which is unique to the anammox reaction, were observed in all 3 sludge reactors. Results of 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that anammox bacteria were cultivated and diversified in each sludge type. Moreover, the microbial diversity of anammox bacteria was higher in the enriched culture from sewage sludge compared to the other two types of seed sludge. Bacillus sp. coexisted in the anammox culture cultivated from sewage sludge. These results suggest that differences in the anammox community in the enriched culture were caused by differences in the type of seed sludge.
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