We studied the mechanism controlling the organization of actin filaments (AFs) in Hydrocharis root hair cells, in which reverse fountain streaming occurs. The distribution of AFs and microtubules (MTs) in root hair cells were analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. AFs and MTs were found running in the longitudinal direction of the cell at the cortical region. AFs were observed in the transvacuolar strand, but not MTs. Ultrastructural studies revealed that AFs and MTs were colocalized and that MTs were closer to the plasma membrane than AFs. To examine if MTs regulate the organization of AFs, we carried out a double inhibitor experiment using cytochalasin B (CB) and propyzamide, which are inhibitors of AFs and MTs, respectively. CB reversibly inhibited cytoplasmic streaming while propyzamide alone had no effect on it. However after treatment with both CB and propyzamide, removal of CB alone did not lead to recovery of cytoplasmic streaming. In these cells, AFs showed a meshwork structure. When propyzamide was also removed, cytoplasmic streaming and the original organization of AFs were recovered. These results strongly suggest that MTs are responsible for the organization of AFs in Hydrocharis root hair cells.
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