Enzymatic fuel cells (EFCs) are power devices in which enzymes are used as electrocatalysts to convert biochemical energy directly into electricity, in contrast to metallic catalysts commonly used in fuel cells. This chapter describes the three types of MEFCs fabricated using a series of microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-related techniques. An insertion miniature enzymatic fuel cells (MEFCs) is a type of cell that generates electricity from sugars in living organisms. A microfluidic MEFC consists of microchannels for continuous fuel supply, in which the power generation and performance depend on several fluidic parameters including the flow velocity, electrode configuration, and channel dimensions. The series and parallel stacking of microfluidic MEFCs increase the level of output voltage and net lifetime, respectively. Finally, a sheet-shaped MEFC is described that could be combined with wearable electronics of the future. Engineering advances focused on miniaturization described to promote early practical applications and commercialization of EFCs.
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