An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) can be used for quantitative measurement of proteins, and improving the detection sensitivity to the ultrasensitive level would facilitate the diagnosis of various diseases. In the present review article, we first define the term ‘ultrasensitive’. We follow this with a survey and discussion of the current literature regarding modified ELISA methods with ultrasensitive detection and their application for diagnosis. Finally, we introduce our own newly devised system for ultrasensitive ELISA combined with thionicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cycling and its application for the diagnosis of infectious diseases and lifestylerelated diseases. The aim of the present article is to expand the application of ultrasensitive ELISAs in the medical and biological fields.
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