This work demonstrates that graphene/diamond (carbon sp2-sp3) heterojunctions can be used as multibit optoelectronic memory, where light information is stored as multilevel resistance in a nonvolatile manner. The carbon heterojunctions exhibit a large memory switching ratio of ∼104 and a retention time of >100 min, which allows for multilevel and nonvolatile data storage of optical information. The carbon heterojunctions also exhibit an apparent response to optical pulses, and the output current (conductivity of the junctions) increased linearly in response to the total number of optical pulses. Simple optical arithmetic operations such as accumulation, subtraction, and counting can be performed by using the multiple resistance states of the heterojunctions. The carbon heterojunctions have light sensing, memory, and arithmetic functions in a single device, and they are expected to pave the way for the production of innovative optical computing devices with multifunctional integration of sensing, memory, and calculation functions.
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