The formation of conducting nanopatterns using electrochemical nanolithography on an ultrathin polymer film of an electroactive precursor polymer, poly(vinylcarbazole) (PVK), was discussed. In the process, a negative voltage bias was applied to the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, which acts as the cathode. The electrochemical oxidation occurs on a dielectric material coated on a conducting electrode, which acts as the anode. The electrochemical crosslinking of the carbazole units results in both higher conductivity and formation of relief structures.
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