Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of navigation surgery using augmented reality technology (AR-based NS) for pancreatectomy. Methods: The 3D reconstructed images from CT were created by segmentation. The initial registration was performed by using the optical location sensor. The reconstructed images were superimposed onto the real organs in the monitor display. Of the 19 patients who had undergone hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgery using AR-based NS, the accuracy, visualization ability, and utility of our system were assessed in five cases with pancreatectomy. Results: The position of each organ in the surface-rendering image corresponded almost to that of the actual organ. Reference to the display image allowed for safe dissection while preserving the adjacent vessels or organs. The locations of the lesions and resection line on the targeted organ were overlaid on the operating field. The initial mean registration error was improved to approximately 5 mm by our refinements. However, several problems such as registration accuracy, portability and cost still remain. Conclusion: AR-based NS contributed to accurate and effective surgical resection in pancreatectomy. The pancreas appears to be a suitable organ for further investigations. This technology is promising to improve surgical quality, training, and education.
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